Phenotype, how to lose weight according to your constitution

There are areas of the body that are very resistant to the slimming process. For this reason, during fat loss some parts may remain unchanged or shrink significantly less than others.

The different fat distributions generally differ between males and females.
Men more often deposit fat in the upper parts, in the abdominal area and between the viscera. In women, on the other hand, accumulation in the lower parts of the body, in the gluteal-femoral area, tends to predominate.

Phenotypes

Android Phenotype

Fat accumulates in the upper body, chest, abdomen, back, arms.

Android type or android obesity, often called visceral or 'apple' obesity, is more common in men than in women, but can occur in women as they age.

In this phenotype there is a disproportionate accumulation of fat mainly in the abdominal region, but also in the upper trunk areas such as the shoulders and neck.

Android obesity is also associated with people exposed to chronic stress. The internal response to stress over long periods plays a key role in fat distribution, regardless of sex. For this reason, women with high levels of the stress hormone cortisol tend to distribute fat in an android fashion.

Risks

People with android obesity are prone to hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, high total cholesterol and triglycerides, low HDL (good cholesterol), high blood pressure, gout and uric acid.

 

WHR (Waist to hip ratio)

Less than 0.85

Gynoid Phenotype

The gynoid type or gynoid obesity, also known as 'pear-shaped', is the other sexually determined classification predominant in women.

There is a growing body of scientific research that recognises that accumulation in the gluteal-femoral regions by women is linked to reproductive function.

Despite the lower health risks, fat distributed in the typical gynoid areas, i.e. the glutes, thighs and generally the lower limbs, is much more resistant to mobilisation than the abdominal area in weight loss programmes.

Risks

The gynoid phenotype is associated with a significantly lower risk of contracting potentially serious diseases than the android phenotype, however it is a more difficult fat to eliminate.

WHR (Waist to hip ratio)

Higher than 0.78

Mixed Phenotype

The mixed or intermediate type is one which has an even distribution of fat throughout the body with no particularly prevalent accumulation in any one area.

 

The fat is accumulated evenly in the lower and upper regions of the body, giving a kind of rectangular shape.

Risks

A fairly even distribution can hide bad health conditions associated with a high percentage of fat mass.

WHR (Waist to hip ratio)

Intermediate android tendency (also menopausal) between 0.81 and 0.84
Intermediate gynoid tendency between 0.79 and 0.81

Menopausal Phenotype

Fat accumulates in the upper body, chest, abdomen, back, arms.

The android type or android obesity, often called visceral or 'apple' obesity, is more common in men than in women, but can occur in women with advancing age.

In this phenotype there is a disproportionate accumulation of fat mainly in the abdominal region, but also in the upper trunk areas such as the shoulders and neck.

Android obesity is also associated with people exposed to chronic stress. The internal response to stress over long periods plays a key role in fat distribution, regardless of gender.  For this reason, women with high levels of the stress hormone, cortisol, tend to distribute fat in an android fashion.

Risks

People with android-type obesity are prone to hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, high levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides, low levels of HDL (good cholesterol), high blood pressure, gout and uric acid.

WHR (Waist to hip ratio)

Less than 0.85

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